Planck Collaboration et al. (2018) – Planck 2018 results. XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emission

We present 353 GHz full-sky maps of the polarization fraction $p$, angle $\psi$, and dispersion of angles $S$ of Galactic dust thermal emission produced from the 2018 release of Planck data. We confirm that the mean and maximum of $p$ decrease with increasing $N_H$. The uncertainty on the maximum polarization fraction, $p_\mathrm{max}=22.0$% at 80 arcmin resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the zero level in total intensity. The observed inverse behaviour between $p$ and $S$ is interpreted with models of the polarized sky that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent Galactic magnetic field. Thus, the statistical properties of $p$, $\psi$, and $S$ mostly reflect the structure of the magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map $S \times p$, looking for residual trends. While $p$ decreases by a factor of 3–4 between $N_H=10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$ and $N_H=2\times 10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, $S \times p$ decreases by only about 25%, a systematic trend observed in both the diffuse ISM and molecular clouds. Second, we find no systematic trend of $S \times p$ with the dust temperature, even though in the diffuse ISM lines of sight with high $p$ and low $S$ tend to have colder dust. We also compare Planck data with starlight polarization in the visible at high latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable. Two polarization emission-to-extinction ratios that characterize dust optical properties depend only weakly on $N_H$ and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction of 13%, compatible with the $p_\mathrm{max}$ observed in emission. These results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.

Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M. I. R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Benabed, K.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carron, J.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferrière, K.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Green, G.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Guillet, V.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F. K.; Helou, G.; Herranz, D.; Hivon, E.; Huang, Z.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Matarrese, S.; Mauri, N.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Moss, A.; Natoli, P.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Sirignano, C.; Sunyaev, R.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Tenti, M.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Trombetti, T.; Valiviita, J.; Vansyngel, F.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2018, arXiv e-prints, 1807, arXiv:1807.06212